Now that we've completed our simple little ML language, let's discuss the road ahead toward building a more complex language we'll call ProtoHaskell that will eventually become the full Fun language.

Language Chapters Description
Poly 1 - 8 Minimal type inferred ML-like language.
Fun 18 - 27 ProtoHaskell with native code generator.

The defining feature of ProtoHaskell is that it is independent of an evaluation model, so hypothetically one could write either a lazy or a strict backend and use the same frontend.

Before we launch into writing compiler passes let's look at the overview of where we're going, the scope of what we're going to do, and what needs to be done to get there. We will refer to concepts that are not yet introduced, so keep in mind this is meant to be a high-level overview of the ProtoHaskell compiler pipeline.

Haskell itself is a beautifully simple language at its core, although the implementation of GHC is arguably anything but simple! The more one digs into the implementation the more it becomes apparent that a lot of care and forethought was given to making the frontend language as expressive as it is. Many of these details require a great detail of engineering work to make them work as seamlessly as they do.

Consider this simple Haskell example but note how much of an extension this is from our simple little ML interpreter.

filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
filter pred [] = []
filter pred (x:xs)
| pred x         = x : filter pred xs
| otherwise      =     filter pred xs

Consider all the things that are going on just in this simple example.

• Lazy evaluation
• Custom datatypes
• Higher order functions
• Parametric polymorphism
• Function definition by pattern matching
• Pattern matching desugaring
• Guards to distinguish sub-cases
• Type signature must subsume inferred type
• List syntactic sugar ( value/pattern syntax )

Clearly we're going to need a much more sophisticated design, and we'll likely be doing quite a bit more bookkeeping about our program during compilation.

## Scope

Considering our project is intended to be a simple toy language, we are not going to implement all of Haskell 2010. Doing so in its entirety would actually be a fairly involved effort. However we will implement a sizable chunk of the functionality, certainly enough to write non-trivial programs and implement most of the standard Prelude.

Things we will implement:

• Indentation sensitive grammar
• Pattern matching
• Algebraic datatypes
• Where statements
• Recursive functions/datatypes
• Operator sections
• Implicit let-rec
• List and tuple sugar
• Records
• Custom operators
• Do-notation
• Type annotations
• Typeclasses
• Arithmetic primops
• Type synonyms
• List comprehensions

Things we will not implement are:

• Polymorphic recursion
• Any GHC-specific language extensions.
• Newtypes
• Module namespaces
• Operator parameters
• Defaulting rules
• Exceptions
• Parallelism
• Software Transactional Memory
• Foreign Function Interface

Now if one feels so inclined one could of course implement these features on top of our final language, but they are left as an exercise to the reader!

This of course begs the question of whether or not our language is "a Haskell". In the strictest sense, it will not be since it doesn't fully conform to either the Haskell 98 or Haskell 2010 language specifications. However in terms of the colloquial usage of the term Haskell, there does seem to be some growing feeling that the "Haskell language family" does exist as a definable subset of the functional programming design space, although many people disagree what its defining features are. In this sense we will most certainly be writing a language in the Haskell family.

## Intermediate Forms

The passes between each of the phases make up the main compilation pipeline .

For ProtoHaskell our pipeline consists of the transitions between four intermediate forms of the program.

• The Source, the textual representation of the program from a file or user input. This is stored in a Text type.
• The Frontend source, the untyped AST generated from the parser.
• The Core, the explicitly typed, desugared form of the program generated after type inference.
• The PHOAS, the type-erased Core is transformed into Haskell expressions by mapping lambda expressions in our language directly into Haskell lambda expressions and then evaluated using the Haskell runtime.
Parsing Source Text.Text
Desugaring Frontend Frontend.Expr
Typechecking Core Core.Expr
Evaluation PHOAS CoreEval.ExprP

For our later Fun language our pipeline builds on top of the ProtoHaskell but instead of going to an interpreter it will be compiled into native code through the native code generator (on top of LLVM) and compiled into a binary executable or evaluated by a just-in-time (JIT) compiler.

Parsing Source Text.Text
Desugaring Frontend Frontend.Expr
Typechecking Core Core.Expr
Transformation STG STG.Expr
Transformation Imp Imp.Expr
Code Generation LLVM LLVM.General.Module

The main driver of the compiler will be a ExceptT + State + IO transformer stack . All other passes and transformations in the compiler will hang off of this monad, which encapsulates the main compilation pipeline.

type CompilerMonad =
ExceptT Msg
(StateT CompilerState IO)
data CompilerState = CompilerState
{ _fname    :: Maybe FilePath            -- ^ File path
, _imports  :: [FilePath]                -- ^ Loaded modules
, _src      :: Maybe L.Text              -- ^ File source
, _ast      :: Maybe Syn.Module          -- ^ Frontend AST
, _tenv     :: Env.Env                   -- ^ Typing environment
, _kenv     :: Map.Map Name Kind         -- ^ Kind environment
, _cenv     :: ClassEnv.ClassEnv         -- ^ Typeclass environment
, _cast     :: Maybe Core.Module         -- ^ Core AST
, _flags    :: Flags.Flags               -- ^ Compiler flags
, _venv     :: CoreEval.ValEnv Core.Expr -- ^ Core interpreter environment
, _denv     :: DataEnv.DataEnv           -- ^ Entity dictionary
, _clenv    :: ClassEnv.ClassHier        -- ^ Typeclass hierarchy
} deriving (Eq, Show)

The compiler itself will have several entry points, expr for interactive evaluation that expects an expression object and joins it into accumulated interactive environment. And modl path that compile whole modules.

Throughout the next 10 chapters we will incrementally create a series of transformations with the following type signatures.

parseP   :: FilePath -> L.Text -> CompilerM Syn.Module
dataP    :: Syn.Module -> CompilerM Syn.Module
groupP   :: Syn.Module -> CompilerM Syn.Module
renameP  :: Syn.Module -> CompilerM Syn.Module
desugarP :: Syn.Module -> CompilerM Syn.Module
inferP   :: Syn.Module -> CompilerM Core.Module
evalP    :: Core.Module -> CompilerM ()

The code path for modl is then simply the passes composed with the Kleisli composition operator to form the composite pipeline for compiling modules.

(>=>) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> (b -> m c) -> a -> m c

And that's basically the entire structure of the compiler. It's just a pipeline of monadic actions for each pass rolled up inside of CompilerM.

modl :: FilePath -> L.Text -> CompilerM ()
modl fname
= parseP fname
>=> dataP
>=> groupP
>=> renameP
>=> desugarP
>=> inferP
>=> evalP

# Engineering Overview

## REPL

It is important to have an interactive shell to be able to interactively explore the compilation steps and intermediate forms for arbitrary expressions. GHCi does this very well, and nearly every intermediate form is inspectable. We will endeavor to recreate this experience with our toy language.

If the ProtoHaskell compiler is invoked either in GHCi or as standalone executable, you will see a similar interactive shell.

 _   _           _       | ProtoHaskell Compiler 0.1.0
| | | | __ _ ___| | __   | Copyright (c) 2013-2015 Stephen Diehl
| |_| |/ _ / __| |/ /   | Released under the MIT License
|  _  | (_| \__ \   <    |
|_| |_|\__,_|___/_|\_\   | Type :help for help

Compiling module: prelude.fun
> id (1+2)
3
> :type (>>=)
(>>=) :: Monad m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b
> :set -ddump-rn
> :load test.fun

Command line conventions will follow GHCi's naming conventions. There will be a strong emphasis on building debugging systems on top of our architecture so that when subtle bugs creep up you will have the tools to diagnose the internal state of the type system and detect flaws in the implementation.

Command Action
:browse Browse the type signatures for a program
:load <file> Load a program from file
:reload Run the active file
:edit Edit the active file in system editor
:core Show the core of an expression or program
:module Show active modules imports
:source Show the source code of an expression or program
:type Show the type of an expression
:kind Show the kind of an expression
:set <flag> Set a flag
:unset <flag> Unset a flag
:constraints Dump the typing constraints for an expression
:quit Exit interpreter

The most notable difference is the very important :core command which will dump out the core representation of any expression given in the interactive shell. Another one is the :constraints command which will interactively walk you through the type checker's reasoning about how it derived the type it did for a given expression.

> :type plus
plus :: forall a. Num a => a -> a -> a

> :core id
id :: forall a. a -> a
id = \(ds1 : a) -> a

> :core compose
compose :: forall c d e. (d -> e) -> (c -> d) -> c -> e
compose = \(ds1 : d -> e)
(ds2 : c -> d)
(ds3 : c) ->
(ds1 (ds2 ds3))

The flags we use also resemble GHC's and allow dumping out the pretty printed form of each of the intermediate transformation passes.

• -ddump-parsed
• -ddump-desugar
• -ddump-rn
• -ddump-infer
• -ddump-core
• -ddump-types
• -ddump-stg
• -ddump-imp
• -ddump-c
• -ddump-llvm
• -ddump-asm
• -ddump-to-file

The implementation of the interactive shell will use a custom library called repline , which is a higher-level wrapper on top of haskeline made to be more pleasant when writing interactive shells.

## Parser

We will use the normal Parsec parser with a few extensions. We will add indentation sensitive parsing so that block syntax ( where statements, let statements, do-notation ) can be parsed.

main :: IO ()
main = do
putStrLn msg
where
msg = "Hello World"

We will also need to allow the addition of infix operators from user-defined declarations, and allow this information to be used during parsing.

infixl 6 +
infixl 7 *

f = 1 + 2 * 3

## Renamer

After parsing we will traverse the entire AST and rename all user-named variables to machine generated names and eliminate any name-shadowing. For example in the following ambiguous binder will replace the duplicate occurrence of x with a fresh name.

f x y = \g x -> x + y    -- x in definition of g shadows x in f
f x y = \g a0 -> a0 + y

We will also devise a general method of generating fresh names for each pass such that the names generated are uniquely relatable to that pass and cannot conflict with later passes.

Ensuring that all names are unique in the syntax tree will allow us more safety later on during program transformation, to know that names cannot implicitly capture and the program can be transformed without changing its meaning.

## Datatypes

User defined data declarations need to be handled and added to the typing context so that their use throughout the program logic can be typechecked. This will also lead us into the construction of a simple kind inference system, and the support of higher-kinded types.

data Bool = False | True
data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a
data T1 f a = T1 (f a)

Each constructor definition will also introduce several constructor functions into the Core representation of the module. Record types will also be supported and will expand out into selectors for each of the various fields.

## Desugaring

Pattern matching is an extremely important part of a modern functional programming language, but the implementation of the pattern desugaring is remarkably subtle. The frontend syntax allows the expression of nested pattern matches and incomplete patterns, both can generate very complex splitting trees of case expressions that need to be expanded out recursively.

Multiple Equations

For instance the following toplevel pattern for the xor function is transformed into the following nested set of case statements:

-- Frontend
xor False False = False;
xor False True = True;
xor True False = True;
xor True True = False;
-- Desugared
xor :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
xor = \_a _b -> case _a of {
False -> case _b of {
False -> False;
True -> True
};
True -> case _b of {
False -> True;
True -> False
}
}

Constructor Patterns

Toplevel declarations in the frontend language can consist of patterns for on the right-hand-side of the declaration, while in the Core language these are transformed into case statements in the body of the function.

-- Frontend
f (Left  l) = a
f (Right r) = b

-- Desugared
f x = case x of
Left  l -> a
Right r -> b

Nested Patterns

The frontend language also allows nested constructors in a single pattern, while in the Core language these are expanded out into two case statements which scrutinize only one level of pattern.

-- Frontend
f x = case x of
Just (Just y) -> y

-- Desugared
f x = case x of
Just _a -> case _a of
Just _b -> _b

There are many edge cases of pattern matching that we will have to consider. The confluence of all them gives rise to a rather complex set of AST rewrites:

• Multiple arguments
• Overlapping patterns
• Literal patterns
• Nested patterns
• Non-exhaustive equations
• Conditional equations
• Non-linear patterns

On top of pattern matching we will implement the following more trivial syntactic sugar translations:

• Expand if/then statements into case expressions.
• Expand pattern guards into case expressions.
• Expand out do-notation for monads.
• Expand list syntactic sugar.
• Expand tuple syntactic sugar.
• Expand out operator sections.
• Expand out string literals.
• Expand out numeric literals.

We will however punt on an important part of the Haskell specification, namely overloaded literals. In Haskell numeric literals are replaced by specific functions from the Num or Fractional typeclasses.

-- Frontend
42 :: Num a => a
3.14 :: Fractional a => a

-- Desugared
fromInteger (42 :: Integer)
fromRational (3.14 :: Rational)

We will not implement this, as it drastically expands the desugarer scope.

We will however follow GHC's example in manifesting unboxed types as first class values in the language so literals that appear in the AST are rewritten in terms of the wired-in constructors (Int#, Char#, Addr#, etc).

I# : Int# -> Int
C# : Char# -> Char
> :core 1
I# 1#
> :core 1 + 2
plus (I# 1#) (I# 2#)
> :core "snazzleberry"
unpackCString# "snazzleberry"#

## Core

The Core language is the result of translation of the frontend language into an explicitly typed form. Just like GHC we will use a System-F variant, although unlike GHC we will effectively just be using vanilla System-F without all of the extensions ( coercions, equalities, roles, etc ) that GHC uses to implement more complicated features like GADTs and type families.

This is one of the most defining feature of GHC Haskell, its compilation into a statically typed intermediate Core language. It is a well-engineers detail of GHC's design that has informed much of how Haskell the language has evolved as a language with a exceedingly large frontend language that all melts away into a very tiny concise set of abstractions. Just like GHC we will extract all our language into a small core, with just a few constructors.

data Expr
= App Expr Expr
| Var Var
| Lam Name Type Expr
| Case Expr [Alt]
| Let Bind Expr
| Lit Literal
| Placeholder Name Type

data Var
= Id Name Type
| TyVar Name Kind

The types and kind types are also equally small.

data Type
= TVar TVar
| TCon TyCon
| TApp Type Type
| TArr Type Type
| TForall [Pred] [TVar] Type

data Kind
= KStar
| KArr Kind Kind
| KPrim
| KVar Name

Since the Core language is explicitly typed, it is trivial to implement an internal type checker for it. Running the typechecker on the generated core is a good way to catch optimization and desugaring bugs, and determine if the compiler has produced invalid intermediate code.

## Type Classes

Typeclasses are also remarkably subtle to implement. We will implement just single parameter typeclasses and use the usual dictionary passing translation when compiling the frontend to Core. Although the translation and instance search logic is not terribly complicated, it is however very verbose and involves a lot of bookkeeping about the global typeclass hierarchy.

For example the following simplified Num typeclass generates quite a bit of elaborated definitions in the Core language to generate the dictionary and selector functions for the overloaded plus function.

class Num a where
plus :: a -> a -> a
mult :: a -> a -> a
sub :: a -> a -> a

instance Num Int where
plus = plusInt
mult = multInt
sub  = subInt

plusInt :: Int -> Int -> Int
plusInt (I# a) (I# b) = I# (plusInt# a b)

This expands into the following set of Core definitions.

plusInt :: Int -> Int -> Int
plusInt = \(ds1 : Int)
(ds2 : Int) ->
case ds1 of {
I# ds8 ->
case ds2 of {
I# ds9 ->
case (plusInt# ds8 ds9) of {
__DEFAULT {ds5} -> (I# ds5)
}
}
}

dplus :: forall a. DNum a -> a -> a -> a
dplus = \(tpl : DNum a) ->
case tpl of {
DNum a b c -> a
}

plus :: forall e. Num e => e -> e -> e
plus = \($dNum_a : DNum e) (ds1 : e) (ds2 : e) -> (dplus$dNum_a ds1 ds2)

Our typeclass infrastructure will be able to support the standard typeclass hierarchy from the Prelude. Our instance search mechanism will be subject to the same restriction rules that GHC enforces.

• Paterson condition
• Coverage condition
• Bounded context stack

## Type Checker

The type checker is the largest module and probably the most nontrivial part of our compiler. The module consists of roughly 1200 lines of code. Although the logic is not drastically different from the simple little HM typechecker we wrote previously, it simply has to do more bookkeeping and handle more cases.

The implementation of the typechecker will be split across four modules:

• Infer.hs - Main inference driver
• Unify.hs - Unification logic
• ClassEnv.hs - Typeclass instance resolution
• Elaboration.hs - Typeclass elaboration

The monad itself is a RWST + Except stack, with State holding the internal state of the inference engine and Writer gathering the generated constraint set that is passed off to the solver.

-- | Inference monad
type InferM = RWST
Env             -- Typing environment
[Constraint]    -- Generated constraints
InferMState     -- Inference state
(Except       -- Inference errors
TypeError)

-- | Inference state
data InferMState = InferMState
{ count     :: Int         -- ^ Name supply
, preds     :: [Pred]      -- ^ Typeclass predicates
, skolems   :: Skolems     -- ^ Skolem scope
, active    :: Name        -- ^ Active function name
, classh    :: ClassHier   -- ^ Typeclass hierarchy
}

In Fun we will extend the simple type checker with arbitrary rank polymorphism (i.e. RankNTypes in GHC). This is actually required to implement typeclasses in their full generality, although in ProtoHaskell we will cheat a little bit.

## Interpreter

For ProtoHaskell we will actually directly evaluate the resulting Core expressions in an interpreter. By virtue of us translating the expressions into Haskell expressions we will get lazy evaluation almost for free and will let us run our programs from inside of the interactive shell.

sieve :: [Int] -> [Int]
sieve [] = []
sieve (p:ps) = p : sieve (filter (nonMultiple p) ps)

nonMultiple :: Int -> Int -> Bool
nonMultiple p n = ((n/p)*p) /= n

primes :: [Int]
primes = sieve [2..]
ProtoHaskell> take 5 (cycle [1,2])
[1,2,1,2,1]

[2,3,5,7,11]

## Error Reporting

We will do quite a bit of error reporting for the common failure modes of the type checker, desugar, and rename phases including position information tracking in Fun. However doing this in full is surprisingly involved and would add a significant amount of code to the reference implementation. As such we will not be as thorough as GHC in handling every failure mode by virtue of the scope of our project being a toy language with the primary goal being conciseness and simplicity.

# Frontend

The Frontend language for ProtoHaskell is a fairly large language, consisting of many different types. Let's walk through the different constructions. The frontend syntax is split across several datatypes.

• Decls - Declarations syntax
• Expr - Expressions syntax
• Lit - Literal syntax
• Pat - Pattern syntax
• Types - Type syntax
• Binds - Binders

At the top is the named Module and all toplevel declarations contained therein. The first revision of the compiler has a very simple module structure, which we will extend later in fun with imports and public interfaces.

data Module = Module Name [Decl]         -- ^ module T where { .. }
deriving (Eq,Show)

Declarations or Decl objects are any construct that can appear at toplevel of a module. These are namely function, datatype, typeclass, and operator definitions.

data Decl
= FunDecl BindGroup                    -- ^ f x = x + 1
| TypeDecl Type                        -- ^ f :: Int -> Int
| DataDecl Constr [Name] [ConDecl]     -- ^ data T where { ... }
| ClassDecl [Pred] Name [Name] [Decl]  -- ^ class (P) => T where { ... }
| InstDecl [Pred] Name Type [Decl]     -- ^ instance (P) => T where { ... }
| FixityDecl FixitySpec                -- ^ infixl 1  {..}
deriving (Eq, Show)

A binding group is a single line of definition for a function declaration. For instance the following function has two binding groups.

factorial :: Int -> Int

-- Group #1
factorial 0 = 1

-- Group #2
factorial n = n * factorial (n - 1)

One of the primary roles of the desugarer is to merge these disjoint binding groups into a single splitting tree of case statements under a single binding group.

data BindGroup = BindGroup
{ _matchName  :: Name
, _matchPats  :: [Match]
, _matchType  :: Maybe Type
, _matchWhere :: [[Decl]]
} deriving (Eq, Show)

The expression or Expr type is the core AST type that we will deal with and transform most frequently. This is effectively a simple untyped lambda calculus with let statements, pattern matching, literals, type annotations, if/these/else statements and do-notation.

type Constr = Name

data Expr
= EApp  Expr Expr        -- ^ a b
| EVar  Name             -- ^ x
| ELam  Name Expr        -- ^ \\x . y
| ELit  Literal          -- ^ 1, 'a'
| ELet  Name Expr Expr   -- ^ let x = y in x
| EIf   Expr Expr Expr   -- ^ if x then tr else fl
| ECase Expr [Match]     -- ^ case x of { p -> e; ... }
| EAnn  Expr Type        -- ^ ( x : Int )
| EDo  [Stmt]            -- ^ do { ... }
| EFail                  -- ^ pattern match fail
deriving (Eq, Show)

Inside of case statements will be a distinct pattern matching syntax, this is used both at the toplevel function declarations and inside of case statements.

data Match = Match
{ _matchPat :: [Pattern]
, _matchBody :: Expr
, _matchGuard :: [Guard]
} deriving (Eq, Show)

data Pattern
= PVar Name              -- ^ x
| PCon Constr [Pattern]  -- ^ C x y
| PLit Literal           -- ^ 3
| PWild                  -- ^ _
deriving (Eq, Show)

The do-notation syntax is written in terms of two constructions, one for monadic binds and the other for monadic statements.

data Stmt
= Generator Pattern Expr -- ^ pat <- exp
| Qualifier Expr         -- ^ exp
deriving (Eq, Show)

Literals are the atomic wired-in types that the compiler has knowledge of and will desugar into the appropriate builtin datatypes.

data Literal
= LitInt Int           -- ^ 1
| LitChar Char         -- ^ 'a'
| LitString [Word8]    -- ^ "foo"#
deriving (Eq, Ord, Show)

For data declarations we have two categories of constructor declarations that can appear in the body, regular constructors and record declarations. We will adopt the Haskell -XGADTSyntax for all data declarations.

-- Regular Syntax
data Person = Person String Int

data Person where
Person :: String -> Int -> Person

-- Record Syntax
data Person where
Person :: Person { name :: String, age :: Int }
data ConDecl
= ConDecl Constr Type                -- ^ T :: a -> T a
| RecDecl Constr [(Name, Type)] Type -- ^ T :: { label :: a } -> T a
deriving (Eq, Show, Ord)

Fixity declarations are simply a binding between the operator symbol and the fixity information.

data FixitySpec = FixitySpec
{ fixityFix :: Fixity
, fixityName :: String
} deriving (Eq, Show)

data Assoc = L | R | N
deriving (Eq,Ord,Show)

data Fixity
= Infix Assoc Int
| Prefix Int
| Postfix Int
deriving (Eq,Ord,Show)

## Data Declarations

Data declarations are named blocks of various ConDecl constructors for each of the fields or constructors of a user-defined datatype.

data qname [var] where
[tydecl]
data Unit where
Unit :: Unit
DataDecl
(Name "Unit")
[]
[ ConDecl
(Name "Unit") (Forall [] [] (TCon AlgTyCon { tyId = Name "Unit" }))
]

## Function Declarations

Function declarations create FunDecl with BindGroup for the pattern on the left hand side of the toplevel declaration. The matchPat is simply the sequence of patterns (PVar, PCon, PLit) on the left hand side. If a type annotation is specified it is stored in the matchType field. Likewise, if there is a sequence of where statements these are also attached directly to the declaration, and will later be desugared away into local let statements across the body of the function.

qname [pat] = rhs [where decls]
const x y = x
FunDecl
BindGroup
{ _matchName = Name "const"
, _matchPats =
[ Match
{ _matchPat = [ PVar (Name "x") , PVar (Name "y") ]
, _matchBody = EVar (Name "x")
}
]
, _matchType = Nothing
, _matchWhere = [ [] ]
}

Pattern matches across multiple lines are treated as two separate declarations, which will later be grouped on the matchName in the desugaring phase. So for instance the map function has the following representation:

map f [] = []
map f (x:xs) = Cons (f x) (map f xs)
FunDecl
BindGroup
{ _matchName = Name "map"
, _matchPats =
[ Match
{ _matchPat = [ PVar (Name "f") , PCon (Name "Nil") [] ]
, _matchBody = EVar (Name "Nil")
}
]
, _matchType = Nothing
, _matchWhere = [ [] ]
}

FunDecl
BindGroup
{ _matchName = Name "map"
, _matchPats =
[ Match
{ _matchPat =
[ PVar (Name "f")
, PCon (Name "Cons") [ PVar (Name "x") , PVar (Name "xs") ]
]
, _matchBody =
EApp
(EApp
(EVar (Name "Cons")) (EApp (EVar (Name "f")) (EVar (Name "x"))))
(EApp
(EApp (EVar (Name "map")) (EVar (Name "f"))) (EVar (Name "xs")))
}
]
, _matchType = Nothing
, _matchWhere = [ [] ]
}

## Fixity Declarations

Fixity declarations are exceedingly simple, they store the binding precedence of the declaration along with its associativity (Left, Right, Non-Associative) and the infix symbol.

[infixl|infixr|infix] [integer] ops;
infixl 4 +;
FixityDecl
FixitySpec { fixityFix = Infix L 4 , fixityName = "+" }

## Typeclass Declarations

Typeclass declarations consist simply of the list of typeclass constraints, the name of the class, and the type variable ( single parameter only ). The body of the class is simply a sequence of scoped FunDecl declarations with only the matchType field.

class [context] => classname [var] where
[body]

Consider a very simplified Num class.

class Num a where
plus :: a -> a -> a
ClassDecl
[]
(Name "Num")
[ Name "a" ]
[ FunDecl
BindGroup
{ _matchName = Name "plus"
, _matchPats = []
, _matchType =
Just
(Forall
[]
[]
(TArr
(TVar TV { tvName = Name "a" })
(TArr
(TVar TV { tvName = Name "a" })
(TVar TV { tvName = Name "a" }))))
, _matchWhere = []
}
]

Typeclass instances follow the same pattern, they are simply the collection of instance constraints, the name of the typeclass, and the head of the type class instance type. The declarations are a sequence of FunDecl objects with the bodies of the functions for each of the overloaded function implementations.

instance [context] => head where
[body]

For example:

instance Num Int where
plus = plusInt
InstDecl
[]
(Name "Num")
(TCon AlgTyCon { tyId = Name "Int" })
[ FunDecl
BindGroup
{ _matchName = Name "plus"
, _matchPats =
[ Match { _matchPat = [] , _matchBody = EVar (Name "plusInt") } ]
, _matchType = Nothing
, _matchWhere = [ [] ]
}
]

## Wired-in Types

While the base Haskell is quite small, several portions of the desugaring process require the compiler to be aware about certain types before they are otherwise defined in the Prelude. For instance the type of every guarded pattern in the typechecker is Bool. These are desugared into a case statement that includes the True and False constructors. The Bool type is therefore necessarily baked into the syntax of the language and is inseparable from the implementation.

sign x
|  x >  0  =  1
|  x == 0  =  0
|  x <  0  = -1

These are called the wired-in types, and while they are still defined in our Prelude they will have somewhat special status. The primitive types (of kind #) will be very special and are not user extensible, they map directly to implementation details of the code generation backend or Haskell functions hard-wired into the interpreter.

Syntax Name Kind Description
Int# Int# # Machine integer
Char# Char# # Machine char
Double# Double# # Machine double
Addr# Addr# # Heap address
Int Int * Boxed integer
Char Char * Boxed char
Double Double * Boxed double
[] List * -> * List
(,) Pair * -> * -> * 2-Tuple
() Unit * Unit type
(->) Arrow * -> * -> * Arrow type
Bool Bool * Boolean
IO IO * -> * IO Monad

## Traversals

Bottom-up traversals and rewrites in a monadic context are so common that we'd like to automate this process so that we don't have to duplicate the same logic across all our code. So we'll write several generic traversal functions.

descendM :: (Monad m, Applicative m) => (Expr -> m Expr) -> Expr -> m Expr
descendM f e = case e of
EApp  a b   -> EApp <$> descendM f a <*> descendM f b EVar a -> EVar <$> pure a
ELam  a b   -> ELam <$> pure a <*> descendM f b ELit n -> ELit <$> pure n
ELet  n a b -> ELet <$> pure n <*> descendM f a <*> descendM f b EIf a b c -> EIf <$> descendM f a <*> descendM f b <*> descendM f c
ECase a xs  -> ECase <$> f a <*> traverse (descendCaseM f) xs EAnn a t -> EAnn <$> descendM f a <*> pure t
EFail       -> pure EFail

descendCaseM :: (Monad m, Applicative m) => (Expr -> m Expr) -> Match -> m Match
descendCaseM f e = case e of
Match ps a -> Match <$> pure ps <*> descendM f a The case where the monad is Identity simply corresponds to a pure expression rewrite. descend :: (Expr -> Expr) -> Expr -> Expr descend f ex = runIdentity (descendM (return . f) ex) For example a transformation for use in this framework of traversals might just use pattern matching to match specific syntactic structure and rewrite it or simply yield the input and traverse to the next element in the bottom-up traversal. A pure transformation that rewrites all variables named "a" to "b" might be written concisely as the following higher order function. transform :: Expr -> Expr transform = descend f where f (Syn.EVar "a") = (Syn.EVar "b") f x = x This is good for pure logic, but most often our transformations will have to have access to some sort of state or context during traversal and thus descendM will let us write the same rewrite but in a custom monadic context. transform :: Expr -> RewriteM Expr transform = descendM f where f (Syn.EVar x) = do env <- gets _env return$ Syn.EVar (lookupVar env x)
f x = x

These traversals admit very nice composition semantics, and AST transformations can be composed and chained as easily as functions.

compose
:: (Expr -> Expr)
-> (Expr -> Expr)
-> (Expr -> Expr)
compose f g = descend (f . g)

Recall that monadic actions can be composed like functions using the Kleisli composition operator.

Functions          : a -> b
Monadic operations : a -> m b
-- Function composition
(.) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
f . g = \x -> g (f x)

(<=<) :: Monad m => (b -> m c) -> (a -> m b) -> a -> m c
f <=< g ≡ \x -> g x >>= f

We can now write composition descendM functions in terms of Kleisli composition to give us a very general notion of AST rewrite composition.

composeM
=> (Expr -> m Expr)
-> (Expr -> m Expr)
-> (Expr -> m Expr)
composeM f g = descendM (f <=< g)

So for instance if we have three AST monadic transformations (a, b, c) that we wish to compose into a single pass t we can use composeM to generate the composite transformation.

a :: Expr -> RewriteM Expr
b :: Expr -> RewriteM Expr
c :: Expr -> RewriteM Expr

t :: Expr -> RewriteM Expr
t =  a composeM b composeM c

Later we utilize both GHC.Generics and Uniplate to generalize this technique even more.

# Misc Infrastructure

## Full Source

The partial source for the Frontend of ProtoHaskell is given. This is a stub of all the data structures and scaffolding we will use to construct the compiler pipeline.

The modules given are:

• Monad.hs - Compiler monad
• Flags.hs - Compiler flags
• Frontend.hs - Frontend syntax
• Name.hs - Syntax names
• Compiler.hs - Initial compiler stub
• Pretty.hs - Pretty printer
• Type.hs` - Type syntax

See: